Crow Creek Following the Dakota Wars of 1862 which culminated with the hanging of 38 Dakota warriors this remains the largest execution in American history. The U.S. government launched a systemic relocation program designed to clear Minnesota of the entire Dakota Tribe. In addition to placing a bounty of $25 per scalp on any Dakota found in Minnesota, the government incarcerated approximately 1,500 Dakota through the winter of 1862-63 in a camp historians liken to a concentration camp. In May of 1863 the Dakota were relocated to the Santee reservation in Nebraska and the Crow Creek reservation in South Dakota. More than 130 Dakota died during the relocation program. Between 1863 and 1866, other Dakota tribes, including the Sisseton and Wahpeton, Mdewakan, Hunkpapa, Yanktanai and Tetons were forced to settle on Crow Creek.
Today, Buffalo County South Dakota, where Crow Creek reservation is located, is America's poorest county. The county has an unemployment rate over 21% with a per capita income of $5,300. 55.7% of the residents in the county live in poverty. As a result of the decades of economic stress, the area's water infrastructure is either nonexistent of in serious need of repair.
The water conditions are as follows (This information is included in the EPA document, we are just summarizing for some quick background information)
This is a ground water distribution system with raw water drawn from a 1,160’ deep well that more than likely comes from the Dakota Basin. The system serves a population of 100 with a daily average flow of 10,000 gallons per day. Water is drawn via a submersible pump which provides pressure to a 28,000 gallon standpipe and the distribution system consisting of 1,440’ of 2” and 1,770’ of 4” diameter PVC
Distribution/Storage The distribution and storage system has not been thoroughly cleaned and inspected since 1998. Additionally, we need to perform a methodical flushing and valve location program and poly pigging if necessary. A map of the distribution system will be utilized to localize the flushing as to create the greatest flow in a specific area and generate the greatest velocity for effect side wall scouring. If flow only flushing does not produce the desired results of cleaning the sidewalls effectively poly pigging will be utilized to remove side wall deposits. After deposits have been loosened, isolation flushing will again be utilized to remove loosened materials from the distribution system.
Water Quality In reviewing the water quality data it is evident that there are a couple of issues that need to be dealt with. First and most importantly is the sodium level. The current level of sodium in the Big Bend water source is 447 mg1. Currently, the USEPA does not have a maximum contaminant level, however, mandatory notification for those on sodium restricted diets must be made at 20 mg/1 and water with more than 270 mg/1 should not be used by individuals on moderately restricted sodium diets. While a sodium limit is not mandated, any treatment system that is put in place should be able to reduce the sodium level in order to assure the health and wellbeing of all the individuals utilizing the water system.
Naturally occurring Fluoride is also an issue with mg/1 levels of 1.77 mg/1 or higher being noted. The MCL for Fluoride is 2.2 mg/1 and should be dealt with in any treatment system designed for this water supply since Fluoride levels over 2.2 mg/1 can have serious negative health effects. Finally, sulfate levels of 657 mg/1 have been noted. The MCL for sulfate is 250 mg/1 this water supply is significantly over the established limit. This constituent can cause taste and odor problems as well as intestinal problems and should be part of the design of any water treatment system for this water source. We at Water without Borders feel that something needs to be done now.